Lectures

- 1. Sensitivity Analysis
- 2. Kinematics of a Fluid Element
- 3. Stress-Strain Relationship
- 4. Coordination Transformations for Strain and Stress Rates
- 5. Compressible and Incompressible Fluid Element Motion Chart
- 6. Compressible Viscous Equations
- 7. Compressible Equations
- 8. Equations of Aircraft Motion
- 9. Brequet Range Equation
- 10. Aerodynamic Center
- 11. Notes on CQ 1
- 12. Quick Visit to Bernoulli Land
- 13. Kutta Condition
- 14. Kutta Condition Solution
- 15. Thin Airfoil Theory Summary
- 16. Important Concepts in Thin Airfoil Theory
- 17. Prandtl's Lifting Line Introduction
- 18. Force Calculations for Lifting Line
- 19. Trefftz Plane Analysis of Induced Drag
- 20. Solution to Problem 1
- 21. Viscous Flow: Stress Strain Relationship
- 22. Integral Boundary Layer Equations
- 23. Correlation Methods for Integral Boundary Layers
- 24. Method of Assumed Profiles
- 25. Falkner-Skan Flows
- 26. Effect of Turbulent Fluctuations on Mean Flow
- 27. Poiseuille Flow Through a Duct in 2-D
- 28. Duct Flow (cont)
- 29. Laminar Boundary Layer Order of Magnitude Analysis
- 30. Solutions of the Laminar Boundary Layer Equations
- 31. Similarity in Wind Tunnel Testing
- 32. Single Horseshoe Vortex Wing Model
- 33. Ground Effect Using Single Vortex Model
- 34. Three-Dimensional Wall Effects
- 35. Drag Tare Due to Mount
- 36. Subsonic Small Disturbance Potential Flow
- 37. Critical Mach Number
- 38. Behavior of Isentropic Flow in Quasi-1D
- 39. Derivation of Sound Wave Properties
- 40. Waves in 1D Compressible Flow
- 41. Normal Shock Waves
- 42. Propagation of Disturbances By a Moving Object
- 43. Linearized Compressible Potential Flow Governing Equation
- 44. Implications of Linearized Supersonic Flow on Airfoil Lift and Drag
- 45. Oblique Shock Waves
- 46. Prandtl-Meyer Expansion Waves
- 47. Computational Methods for the Euler Equations
- 48. Structured vs. Unstructured Grids
- 49. Solution Convergence

## Aerodynamics

### Course Summary

This course is based on

This course extends fluid mechanic concepts to the aerodynamic performance of wings and bodies in sub/supersonic regimes. The course has four components: (i) subsonic potential flows, including source/vortex panel methods; (ii) viscous flows, including laminar and turbulent boundary layers; (iii) aerodynamics of airfoils and wings, including thin airfoil theory, lifting line theory, and panel method/interacting boundary layer methods; (iv) and supersonic and hypersonic airfoil theory.
*16.100 Aerodynamics, Fall 2005*made available by*Massachusetts Institute of Technology: MIT OpenCourseWare*under the*Creative Commons BY-NC-SA*license.Aerodynamics is the study of the flow of air about a body. In this case, the body will be an airplane, but much of the aerodynamics in this course is relevant to a wide variety of applications from sail boats to automobiles to birds. The course should help students to: formulate and apply appropriate aerodynamic models to predict the forces on and performance of realistic three-dimensional configurations; assess the applicability of aerodynamic models to predict the forces on and performance of realistic three-dimensional configurations and estimate the errors resulting from their application; perform a computational and experimental aerodynamic analysis and design.

### Reading Material

1.**Fundamentals of Aerodynamics. 3rd ed.**

Anderson, John D. Fundamentals of Aerodynamics. 3rd ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2001. ISBN: 007237350

2.

**Introduction to Flight. 5th ed.**

Anderson, John D.

*Introduction to Flight.*5th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2004. ISBN: 0072990716

(Click the button below to see a preview of the book)

3.

**An Introduction to Theoretical and Computational Aerodynamics**

Moran, Jack.

*An Introduction to Theoretical and Computational Aerodynamics.*1st ed. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, 2003. ISBN: 0486428796.

(Click the button below to see a preview of the book)

4.

**Foundation of Aerodynamics**

Kuethe, Arnold, and Chuen-Yen Chow.

*Foundation of Aerodynamics.*5th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, 1997. ISBN: 0471129194.

5.

**Aerodynamics for Engineers**

Bertin, John J.

*Aerodynamics for Engineers.*4th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001. ISBN: 0130646334.

### Course Material

1.**Lift and Drag Primer (321 KB pdf)**

2.

**Thin Airfoil Theory Summary (198 KB pdf)**

(To accompany Homework 4)

3.

**Wind Tunnel Wall (354 KB pdf)**

(To accompany Project Assignment 1)

4.

**Lift Generation and Streamline Curvature (98 KB pdf)**

5.

**Cylinder Drag with Roughness (586 KB pdf)**

(To accompany Project Assignment 3)

6.

**CFD Notes (723 KB pdf)**

(To accompany Project Assignment 4)

7.

**Conceptual Description of Wave Drag (409 KB pdf)**

8.

**CD NACA (523 KB pdf)**

9.

**Homework 1**

Kinematics, Stress-strain, and Navier-Stokes Equations

Wright Brothers Wind Tunnel Test

Aerodynamic Design of BWB - Lecture by Bob Liebeck, The Boeing Company

10.

**Homework 2**

2-D Potential Flow

11.

**Homework 3**

2-D Panel Methods

12.

**Homework 4**

Thin Airfoil Theory and Vortex Lattice Methods

13.

**Homework 5**

Lifting Line and High Aspect Ratio Wings

14.

**Homework 6**

Navier-Stokes Equations

15.

**Homework 7**

Boundary Layers: Laminar

16.

**Homework 8**

Boundary Layers: Laminar (cont.) and Separation

17.

**Homework 9**

Boundary Layers: Transition and Turbulence

18.

**Project Assignments**

Project Assignment 1 (PDF file)

Project Assignment 2 (PDF file)

Project Assignment 3 (PDF file)

Project Assignment 4 (PDF file)

Project Design Assignment (PDF file)

19.

**Sample exam questions**

Take-home Exam 1 (PDF file)

Take-home Exam 2 (PDF file)

Take-home Exam 1 Study Questions (Answers are in the Yellow Boxes) (PDF file)